8 Ball Umpire

Australian Eight Ball Federation

Casino Ball Rack 256

World Eight Ball Rules: Playing Rules 2020

World Eight-Ball Pool Playing Rules

01-01-2020 – Changes Highlighted  (valid to 31/12/2024)

A The Spirit of the Game

The Game is known as Eight-Ball Pool. It is expected that players will always play the game in the true spirit and in a sporting manner. The Referee will take whatever action is necessary to ensure that the spirit and rules of the game are observed.

B Equipment

The Game of Eight-Ball Pool is played with:-

(1) A “Cue Ball” – being a white ball.

(2) Fifteen “Object Balls” – consisting of:-

(a) “Colours” – being a group of seven red balls, (or balls numbered 1 to 7) and a group of seven yellow balls (or balls numbered 9 to 15).

(b) The “Eight-Ball” – being a black ball marked with a number “8”.

(3) A six pocket rectangular Pool Table with general characteristics as follows:-

(a) The cloth will be marked with a “Spot” at the position where a straight line drawn diagonally from the centre of a side pocket to the centre of a corner pocket would intersect with a straight line drawn diagonally from the centre of the opposite side pocket to the centre of the other corner pocket.

(b) The cloth will be marked with a “Baulk Line”, being a straight line, drawn from cushion to cushion, parallel to, and one fifth of the length of the table from, the face of the cushion that lies the greatest distance from the Spot.

C Definitions

(1) Shot: A “Shot” begins when all balls stop moving from the previous Shot.

A player “Plays a Shot” by striking the Cue Ball with the tip of the cue.

A “Shot” ends when all balls stop moving from the current Shot.

(2) Play: To “Play” an Object Ball is to play a shot that results in the Cue Ball’s first contact with another ball to be with that Object Ball.

To “Play” the Cue Ball is to strike it with the tip of the cue.

(3) Ball On: At any time during a frame, a ball “On” is any Object Ball that the player may play without incurring a penalty.

(4) Pot: A ball is “Potted” when it leaves the bed of the table, enters a pocket and remains in that pocket.

(5) Visit: A “Visit” comprises one shot or a series of shots. Each visit lasts until the player fails to pot a ball “On”. (Or until a foul is committed or the frame ends)

(6) Turn: A players “Turn” at the table comprises one visit or, after most fouls committed by the opponent, two visits.

(7) Frame: (a) A Frame is one game of Eight-Ball Pool between two players or two pairs of players. A Frame is played from the opening break and usually through until the Eight-Ball is potted.

(b) A player may concede a frame at any time.

(Note: there are other ways that a frame may end – see “Loss of Frame”)

(8) Match: A Match is a predetermined number of frames of Eight-Ball Pool between two players, two pairs of players or two teams of players.

(9) Player in Control: A player (and the player’s partner in doubles) is deemed to be “In Control” of the frame from the time that the balls stop moving from the final shot of an opponent’s turn until the balls stop moving from the final shot of the player’s turn. There can be no instance, once a frame has commenced, that someone is not in control.

D Object of the Game

(1) The object of the game is to win by being the first player to Pot a group of Colours in any order and in any pockets and then Pot the Eight-Ball in any pocket.

(2) When “On” a group of Colours, potting more than one ball of that Colour in the same shot is allowed. But a separate shot must be played to pot the Eight-Ball and win the game.

E Playing from Baulk

(1) Baulk is the rectangular area of the table that is bordered by the Baulk Line and the three cushions at that end of the table.

(2) When playing from Baulk:-

(a) The centre point of the Cue Ball must be in Baulk when a shot is played. (If the centre point of the Cue Ball is directly on the Baulk Line it is not deemed to be in Baulk.)

(b) The Cue Ball can be moved into position by hand or with the shaft of the cue, but when touched by the tip of the cue, a shot is deemed to have been played.

(c) The Cue Ball may be played in any direction.

(d) If a player wishes to play from Baulk after a “Foul Snooker”, “Foul Jaw Snooker” or “Time Foul”:-

The player must verbally advise the referee of this choice and the referee will then recover the Cue Ball and hand it to the player or place it on top of, and in the centre of, the cushion at the Baulk end of the table for the player to retrieve by hand.

(e) After an “In Off”, “Foul Snooker”, “Foul Jaw Snooker” or “Time Foul” the player must endeavour to position the Cue Ball so as not to create a Foul Snooker. If the player claims a Foul Snooker from Baulk, the referee may choose to move the Cue Ball around to determine if there is any position in Baulk where the player would not be Foul Snookered. Whether such a position is found or not, the referee will announce the result and hand the Cue Ball back to the player or place it on top of, and in the centre of, the cushion at the Baulk end of the table for the player to retrieve by hand.

F The Break

(1) The Object Balls are racked as shown with the Eight-Ball on the Spot.

(2) In the absence of any competition / tournament rules to the contrary, a coin will be tossed or players will ‘lag’ to determine which player will break.

Rules for the ‘lag’
Each player should use balls of equal size and weight.
These should be the only two balls on the table.
With the balls in baulk, one player to the left the other to the right of the table, the balls are struck simultaneously to the foot cushion and back to the baulk end of the table. The player whose ball is the closest to the innermost edge of the baulk cushion wins the lag.
The lagged ball must contact the foot cushion at least once. Other cushion contacts are immaterial, except as prohibited below.
It is an automatic loss of the lag if: Casino Ball Rack 256
(1) The ball crosses into the opponent’s half of the table,
(2) The ball fails to contact the foot cushion,
(3) The ball drops into a pocket,
(4) The ball jumps off the table,
(5) The ball touches the long cushion,
(6) The ball rests within the corner pocket and past the nose of the head cushion, or
(7) The ball contacts the foot cushion more than once.
If both players violate automatic-loss lag rules, or if the referee is unable to determine which ball is closer, the lag is a tie and is replayed.
If one player strikes the ball, the other player has to strike his ball before the opponent’s ball reaches the foot cushion in order to have a simultaneous lag.
If this is not the case and the referee feels that the player who played second wanted to get an advantage out of that, then the lag has to be replayed.

The winner of the toss or lag shall decide who will break first. If a series of frames is to be played (A Match),the break of each subsequent frame will alternate.

(3) The first shot of a frame is called the “Break”. To “Break”, the Cue Ball is played at the triangle of Object Balls from Baulk. The frame is deemed to have commenced the instant that the Cue Ball is played.

(4) (a)The Break will be deemed a “Fair Break” if:- Yellow J

(i)At least one Colour is potted.

OR

(ii) Four Object Balls (at least) are driven to a cushion.

(b)If the Break is not a Fair Break it is a Non-Standard Foul and:-

(i)The opponent is awarded two visits.

(ii)The balls are re-racked.

(iii) The opponent re-starts the game and is under the same obligation to achieve a Fair Break.

(c)(i) If the Cue Ball is potted on a Fair Break it is a Non-Standard Foul that is penalised by the turn passing to the opponent.

(ii) If the break is not a Fair Break and the Cue Ball is potted, the penalty for failure to perform a Fair Break applies. (See (b) above).

(5) If the Eight-Ball is potted on any break, the balls are re-racked and the same player will break again. When the Eight-Ball is potted on the break, all other aspects of the shot are ignored. (Except if a breach of the “Spirit of the Game occurs)

(6) Where the wrong player performs the break, if:-

(i) the break is fair, the opponent will continue with 2 visits and an open table.

(ii) the break is not a Fair Break, see 4(b) above.

(7) Lag for break

If competition or tournament rules require a lag for break then the following procedure should be used:

Each player should use balls of equal size and weight. These should be the only two balls on the table.

With the balls in baulk, one player to the left and one to the right of the table, the balls are struck simultaneously to the foot cushion and back to the baulk end of the table. The player whose ball is the closest to the innermost edge of the baulk cushion wins the lag. The lagged ball must contact the foot cushion at least once. Other cushion contacts are immaterial, except as prohibited below. It is an automatic loss of the lag if:

(a) the ball crosses into the opponent’s half of the table,

(b) the ball fails to contact the foot cushion,

(c) the ball drops into a pocket,

(d) the ball jumps the table,

(e) the ball touches the long cushion,

(f) the ball rests within the corner pocket and past the nose of the head cushion, or

(g) the ball contacts the foot cushion more than once.  If both players violate automatic-loss lag rules, or if the referee is unable to determine which ball is closer, the lag is a tie and is replayed.

If one player strikes the ball, the other player has to strike his ball before the opponent’s ball reaches the foot cushion in order to have a simultaneous lag. If this is not the case and the referee feels that the player who played second wanted to get an advantage out of that, then the lag has to be replayed.

G Legal Shot

(1) On all shots, the player must:-

(a) Cause the Cue Ball’s initial contact with a ball to be with a ball “On”,

AND THEN

(b) Pot a ball “On”

OR

Cause the Cue Ball or any Object Ball to contact a cushion.

(2) Failure to play a Legal Shot is a Standard Foul.

(3) Exceptions:

(a) On the Break, the conditions of a Legal Shot do not apply. {See (F) The Break}

(b) When playing out of a Total Snooker a player is only obliged to meet the conditions of (1)(a) above.

i) Definition: A player is in a Total Snooker when it is impossible to play any part of any of the player’s own Colour by way of a “straight line” shot. Leaving an opponent in a Total Snooker is not a foul.
ii) If a player believes that a Total Snooker exists, the player may ask the referee for a ruling.
iii) If the referee rules that a Total Snooker exists, the player’s obligations under the “Legal Shot” rule are relaxed as follows: – The player need only cause the Cue Ball’s initial contact to be with a ball “On”. The requirement to pot a ball and / or cause a ball to strike a cushion is waived.

(4) Interpretations:

(a) If the Cue Ball’s initial contact is with an Object Ball that is touching a cushion, simply forcing that Object Ball into the same cushion does not constitute a Legal Shot.

(b) If the Cue Ball and an Object Ball are touching the same cushion, simply forcing the Cue Ball and / or that Object Ball into the same cushion does not constitute a Legal Shot.

H Deciding Colours

(1) General

(a) When Colours have not been decided the table is deemed to be “Open”. When the table is open a player may play at either group of Colours.

(b) Colours can never be decided on a foul shot.

(c) Once Colours are decided, the player remains “On” that coloured group for the duration of the frame. The opponent remains “On” the opposite coloured group.

(d) Playing a shot after neglecting to nominate a choice of Colours is a Standard Foul. Any balls potted on such a shot are left in the pocket and ignored for the purpose of deciding Colours.

(2) On the Break

(a)If no Colours are potted on the break the table is “Open”.

(b) If one or more Colours are potted on the break the player then has a right and obligation to verbally advise the referee of a choice of Colour before proceeding. Failure to do so is a Standard Foul. If a player is fouled under this rule the opponent faces an “Open” table.

(c) (i) If the player nominates a Colour that was potted on the break, the player is on that colour no matter what happens next.

(ii) If the player nominates a Colour that was not potted on the break, to be on that Colour, the player must pot a ball of that Colour on the next shot.

(3) After the Break

(a) If a player pots one or more balls of the same Colour, the player is then “On” that Colour.

(b) If a player pots one or more balls of different Colours, the player then has a right and obligation to verbally advise the referee of a choice of Colour before proceeding. Once a colour is nominated in these circumstances, the player is on that colour no matter what happens next. Failure to nominate is a Standard Foul. If a player is fouled under this rule, the opponent faces an “Open” table.

I Time Allowed

(1) A player has a maximum of sixty seconds to play each shot.

(2) The Referee will start timing when all balls have come to rest from the previous shot.

(3) If the first thirty seconds elapses before a shot is played, the referee will call “Thirty Seconds” as a warning to the player. This call must be made the instant the thirty seconds has expired. A Referee should not postpone the call because it appears that the player is about to play a shot.

(4) If a shot is not played within sixty seconds it is a Non-Standard Foul.

The incoming player is awarded two visits from: -(a)Where the Cue Ball lies,

or, if the player wishes

(b) From Baulk.

(5) The referee may decide to grant “Time Out”, being a period when timing ceases:-

(a) At the request of a player. (For example, something is obstructing the player or the player needs to leave the playing area.)

and / or

(b) Because the referee deems that it is warranted. (For example, the referee may call time out when making a close foul snooker decision or when searching for a piece of equipment requested by the player.)

(6) When the referee has racked the balls the referee will call “Time Running”. The oncoming player then must play the break shot within 60 seconds.

J Fouls

There are three types of foul. Standard Fouls, Non-Standard Fouls, and Loss of Frame Fouls. A player can only be penalised for one foul at a time. If two or more fouls are committed during a shot, the foul that carries the most severe penalty will apply

K Standard Fouls

Standard fouls are to be called by the referee as soon as they occur and the fouled player is in control, until all balls from that shot come to rest. The referee then awards two visits to the opponent.

(1) Potting the Cue Ball – “In Off” { except on a Fair Break – see (F) The Break (4)(c)(1) }

The incoming player plays from Baulk { see (E) Playing from Baulk (d)(1) }

(2) Playing from outside Baulk when obliged to play from Baulk. { see (E) Playing from Baulk (2)(a) }

(3) Potting an opponent’s ball.

(except, when it is the properly nominated ball following a Foul Snooker or Foul Jaw Snooker)

(4) Playing out of turn. {A player who plays a shot immediately after playing a foul or immediately after the referee has called a foul on that player, has played out of turn.

(5) Accidentally striking the Cue Ball with any part of the cue other than the tip.

(6) Accidentally striking an Object Ball with any part of the cue or cue tip.

(7) Playing a shot before all balls have come to rest from the previous shot.

(8) Playing a shot before any balls that require spotting, have been spotted.

(9) (a) Touching the table while having a cigarette (lit or unlit) in hand or mouth.

(b) Causing a cigarette (lit or unlit) to touch the table or enter the space directly above the table.

(c) Touching the table while having a beverage container in hand.

(d) Causing a beverage container or beverage to touch the table or enter the space directly above the table.

(10) Touching the table when not in control of the frame. {See (C) Definitions (9) – Player in Control}

Exception: When a players’ turn is finished, that player has a maximum of ten (10) seconds to move away from the table. {See 11 below}

(11) Not moving away from the table within ten (10) seconds of the time that all the balls stopped moving from the final shot of a turn at the table.

(12) Coaching: – During a frame, a player is required to play without receiving any advice from other persons relating to the playing of the frame. Should a team member or bone-fide supporter of a player offer advice, the referee will issue a “First and Final Warning” to that person that a repetition will result in the player being penalised via a Standard Foul.

Because it may not always be possible for the Referee to hear if a statement made to a player is advice, the referee may issue the First and Final Warning on the grounds that any statement made to a player, other than general barracking, is deemed to be coaching.

In a tournament setting, a First and Final warning may be given once only, before the commencement of the day’s play as a block warning to all players and spectators.

(13) Leaving the playing area without permission. If a player needs to leave the playing area during a frame or match, “Time Out” must firstly be granted by the referee. { see (I) Time Allowed (5) }

(14) Playing a shot after neglecting to nominate a choice of Colour when the obligation and right to do so existed. { see (H) Deciding Colours (1)(d) }

(15) Playing a Push Shot or Double Hit of a type defined in (N) Push Shots and Double Hits.

(16) Failing to perform a “Legal Shot”. { see(G) Legal Shot }

(17) After being awarded a Foul Snooker or Foul Jaw Snooker: – Playing an opponent’s ball or the Eight Ball without firstly nominating that ball.

(18) Playing a shot while not having at least one foot touching the floor.

(19) Failing to “Play Away” from a touching ball. { see (R) Touching Balls (1)(a) }

(20) A ball remaining off the table. {see (S) Balls Off the Table}

(21) Players body or clothing touching any ball.

(22) Jump shot.(If the Cue ball leaves the bed of the table and misses an Object ball that would have been struck had the Cue Ball not left the table on an otherwise identical shot, the Cue Ball is deemed to have jumped over that object ball).A break shot that results in the pack being jumped will be deemed to be not a Fair Break (see 4b)

L Non-Standard Fouls

Non-Standard fouls are to be called by the referee as soon as they occur and the fouled player is in control, until all balls from that shot come to rest. The referee will then impose the relevant penalty. Non-Standard Fouls are so called because the penalty and / or options of the incoming player may vary.

(1) Failure to perform a Fair Break. { see (F) The Break (4)(a)&(b) }

(2) Failure to play a shot within 60 seconds of the time that the balls came to rest from the previous shot. { see (I) Time Allowed (4) }

(3) Potting the Cue Ball on a Fair Break. { see (F) The Break (4)(c)(1) }

M Loss of Frame Fouls

(1) Committing a foul in the same shot that the Eight Ball is potted. (Except on the Break)

(2) Potting the Eight Ball when a ball or balls of the player’s own Colour are still on the table. (Except on the Break)

(3) Potting the Eight Ball and the last ball or balls of the player’s own Colour in the same shot.

(4) Deliberately striking a ball other than the Cue Ball with the tip of the cue

(5) Deliberately causing any ball or balls to be moved in a manner other than that which may result from playing a normal shot.

(6) Deliberately striking the Cue Ball with other than the tip of the cue.

(7) Deliberately interfering, by word or action, so as to disrupt an opponent’s play.

(8) If a player breaches the “Spirit of the Game” to such an extent that the frame (or match) should be awarded to the opponent.

N Push Shots and Double Hits

(1) Definitions: Most shots commonly known as “Push Shots” in the game of “Snooker” are allowed in the game of Eight – Ball Pool. Generally, any shot played with speed will not be deemed to be a Push Shot regardless of the fact that the cue tip may have come into contact with the Cue Ball more than once.

(2) Exceptions that are Standard Fouls:-

(a) When, during the playing of a shot, the tip of the cue strikes the Cue Ball twice and the referee is able to actually see each contact.

(b) When, during the playing of a shot, a player plays the cue so slowly through the Cue Ball that the cue tip remains in contact with the Cue Ball so as to be visibly pushing it along.

(c) When the Cue Ball is played into a touching Object Ball. {See (R) Touching Balls}

O Snookers  [For Total Snooker refer to Rule G ‘Legal Shot’ part 3 (b)]

(1) Definition: A player is Snookered when it is impossible to play the finest cut possible on both sides of any of that player’s own Colour by way of a “straight – line” shot. Snookering an opponent is not a foul.

(2) A player cannot be Snookered by a ball of the player’s own Colour. That is, if one of the player’s own coloured group is an obstructing ball, it will be ignored for the purposes of determining a Snooker.

(3) A player cannot be Snookered on an Object Ball if the Cue Ball is touching that Object Ball.

(4) A player cannot be Snookered by the straight sections of the cushions. If a straight section of a cushion is preventing the finest possible cut on the side of an Object Ball, that section of cushion will be deemed not to exist for the purposes of determining a Snooker on that Object Ball.

(5) If an Object Ball is partly obscured by a curved section of a cushion (Jaw), this in itself does not constitute a Snooker.

P Foul Snookers

(1) Definition: When an opponent plays a foul shot and this results in the incoming player being snookered, the incoming player is deemed to be Foul Snookered.

(2) If a player believes that a Foul Snooker exists, the player may ask the referee for a ruling.

(3) If the referee rules that a foul snooker exists, the player initially has the following options:-

(a) Play the Cue Ball from where it lies. {see (4) (a) below}

OR

(b) Ask the referee to remove the Cue Ball so as to allow the player to play from Baulk. {see (4) (b) below}

(4) (a) (i) If the player chooses to play the Cue Ball from where it lies, the player may, if the player wishes, nominate the Eight Ball (but see (5) below) or any one of the opponent’s Colour. The player can nominate a particular ball by verbal description of it or its position or by pointing at it. The Referee may ask for further information if any doubt exists as to which ball has been nominated.

(ii) Once nominated, a ball is deemed to “become one” of the player’s Colour for the first shot of the first visit. The player may then play any of the player’s own Colour or the nominated ball. If any of the player’s Colour and/or the nominated ball is potted, the player continues with the first visit.

(b) If the player chooses to play the Cue Ball from Baulk, a Foul Snooker may no longer exist. In this case the procedure under the heading (E) Playing from Baulk (2) (d) & (2) (e) should be followed. If the referee decides that a Foul Snooker does still exist, the player may nominate a ball and follow the procedure in (4) (a) above.

(5) If the Eight Ball is nominated it may be played, but potting it will mean loss of frame.

(6) (a) If a player is “On” the Eight Ball and Foul Snookered: – The player may play a nominated ball or the Eight Ball and pot either or both of these balls, directly or indirectly, in any pocket or pockets.

Assuming the player does not commit a foul:-

(i) If neither the Eight Ball nor the nominated ball is potted, the player’s first visit is complete.

(ii) If the nominated ball is potted and the Eight Ball is not, the player continues with the first visit.

(iii) If the nominated ball and the Eight Ball are potted, the player wins the frame.

(iv) If the Eight Ball is potted and the nominated ball is not, the player wins the frame.

(7) If a Foul Snooker exists and the Cue Ball is touching an opponent’s ball or balls, the player may, but is not obliged to, nominate one of those touching balls.

(8) If an opponent fouls and the Cue Ball comes to rest on or near a Jaw (curved part of a cushion), and that Jaw is preventing the player from playing the finest cut possible on both sides of any of that player’s own Colour by way of a “straight – line” shot, the player is deemed to be Foul Snookered (Foul Jaw Snookered) and all the rules pertaining to Foul Snookers will apply.

Q Foul Jaw Snooker
If an opponent fouls and the Cue Ball comes to rest on or near a Jaw (curved part of a cushion), and that Jaw is preventing the player from playing the finest cut possible on both sides of any of that player’s own Colour by way of a “straight – line” shot, the player is deemed to be Foul Snookered and all the rules pertaining to Foul Snookers will apply.

R Touching Balls

(1) General

(a) If the Cue Ball is touching an Object Ball, the player is obliged to “Play Away” from that Object Ball at an angle of more than 90 degrees. (That is, play the shot without causing the Cue Ball to make any initial further contact with that Object Ball)

(b) If, when playing away from a touching ball, the touching ball rocks or moves without being contacted further, but simply because the Cue Ball is no longer there, no penalty will apply.

(2) When Colours have been decided:-

(a) Playing away from a touching Object Ball of the player’s own Colour:-

The instant a player plays away from a touching Object Ball of the player’s own Colour, the player is deemed to have played that ball. Therefore, the player needs to then only pot a ball or cause any ball to strike a cushion to fulfil all the requirements of a Legal Shot.

(b) Playing away from a touching Object Ball of the opponent’s Colour:-

The player must play away from the touching ball and then meet all the requirements of a Legal Shot.

(c) (i) Playing away from the touching Eight Ball when “On” the Eight Ball:-

The player must play away from the touching Eight Ball and then need only cause any ball to strike a cushion to fulfil the requirements of a Legal Shot.

(ii) Playing away from the touching Eight Ball when not “On” the Eight Ball.:- The player must play away from the touching Eight Ball and then meet all the requirements of a Legal Shot.

(d) Playing away from two or more touching Object Balls:-

(i) If any of the touching Object Balls are of the player’s Colour, the player will be deemed to have played away if the player plays away from any one of the touching balls of the player’s Colour. That is, the player may play into any of the other touching balls. The player needs then to only pot a ball or cause any ball to strike a cushion to fulfil the requirements of a Legal Shot.

(ii) If none of the touching Object Balls are of the player’s coloured group, the player must play away from all the touching balls and then meet all the requirements of a Legal Shot.

(3) When Colours have yet to be decided:-

(a) Playing away from a touching Coloured Ball:-

The instant a player plays away from a touching Coloured Ball the player is deemed to have played that ball. Therefore, the player needs to then only pot a ball or cause any ball to strike a cushion to fulfil all the requirements of a Legal Shot.

(b) Playing away from a touching Eight Ball:-

The player must play away from the touching Eight Ball and then meet all the requirements of a Legal Shot.

(c) Playing away from two or more touching Object Balls:-

If the player plays away from any of the touching Coloured Balls the player is deemed to have played that ball. That is, the player may play into any of the other touching Object Balls. The player needs to then only pot a ball or cause any ball to strike a cushion to meet all the requirements of a Legal Shot.

S Balls Off the Table

(1) It is a Standard Foul if a ball leaves the playing surface (other than being potted) and remains off the playing surface or doesn’t return by its own means.

(2) Definitions / Examples

(a) “Playing Surface”:- The Playing Surface of the table is the flat part of the table between the cushions

(b) “By its own means”:-

(i) It is not a foul if a ball leaves the playing surface, runs along the top of a cushion, drops back on to the playing surface and comes to rest there or falls into a pocket.

(ii) It is a Standard Foul if a ball leaves the playing surface, comes into contact with a person or object that is not a part of the table and then returns to the playing surface.

(c) “Off the Table”:- It is a Standard Foul if a ball leaves the playing surface and comes to rest on other than the playing surface. (e.g. On the floor or on the top of a cushion)

(d) “Spotted”:- A ball is spotted when its centre point is placed on the spot or, if this is not possible, as near as possible to the spot in a direct line between the spot and the centre point of the cushion that lies the greatest distance from the Baulk Line. If this is not possible, as near as is possible to the spot, in a direct line between the spot and the centre point of the baulk line.

(e) If any of the following balls require spotting, they are spotted in the following order:-

(i) Eight Ball

then (ii) Red Balls in any order (or balls numbered 1 to 7 in numerical order)

then (iii) Yellow Balls in any order (or balls numbered 9 to 15 in numerical order)

Spotted balls should be placed as close to each other and any intervening balls as possible, without touching.

(3) If a ball leaves the playing surface and remains off the playing surface, it shall be returned to the table:-

(a) If it is the Cue Ball it is to be played from Baulk.

(b) If it is an Object Ball (or Balls) it is to be Spotted.

T Balls Falling Without Being Hit

(1) Any ball that falls into a pocket at any time, without being struck, shall be replaced by the

Referee to its original position, no penalty. Time will be re-started and the player in control continues with the visit.

(2) Should any ball fall into the pocket after a shot is played and before balls come to rest, providing the fallen ball played no part in the shot, once all other balls have stopped moving, it shall be replaced as described above.

(a)If a legal pot was made play continues with the same visit.

(b)If no pot was made play continues with the next visit.

(c)If a foul was made then the next player will continue with the appropriate penalty.

(3) Should any ball fall into the pocket after a shot is played, but before balls come to rest, and the fallen ball would have been struck, then the Referee will replace all balls to their original positions

(a) If no infringements of the rules were committed during the shot, or if the cue ball is potted as a result of a ball falling that the cue ball would have otherwise hit, the player who played will replay the shot or may play a different shot

(b)If any foul was committed (other than as defined in a) above) then the next player will continue with the appropriate penalty.

U Interference

(1) If any balls are moved during a frame:-

(a) By a person other than the players taking part in the frame or,

(b) As a direct result of one of the players being bumped or,

(c) Due to any other event deemed outside the players’ control such as:-

(i) “An Act of God” such as an earthquake etc

(ii) Tip falling off a cue or end falling off a spider etc,

the referee will replace the balls as near as possible to the positions they were in before the incident occurred, no penalty shall be imposed on either of the players and the frame shall continue.

(2) (a) The referee will prevent any unauthorised marking of the table.

If a player causes a block of billiard chalk or other foreign matter to be on any part of the table it is not a foul. However, the referee will ensure that the item is removed.

(b) If a player repeatedly causes a block of billiard chalk or other foreign matter to be on any part of the table the referee may deem that the player has breeched the Spirit of the Game and award the frame to the opponent.

(c) Exception to (a) above: – A cigarette or beverage container. {see (K) Standard Fouls (10)}

V Impossible Shot

A situation may arise during a frame where it is impossible for a player to play a shot without fouling. In such a situation the player has no other option but to commit a foul.

W Stalemate

The referee shall declare a Stalemate if both the player and the opponent have three turns in succession where the Cue Ball fails to make contact with an Object Ball. In such a case, the frame will be replayed with the same player breaking.

X Referee’s Guidelines and Duties

The Referee’s Duties and Guidelines listed below supplement those directions contained in various other sections of these rules.

(1) The Referee’s decision is final except where players have been advised that it is possible to appeal to a Head Referee or other higher authority.

(2) Information to be disclosed / not disclosed by a referee:-

(a) (i) A player is responsible for knowing the rules of the game. It is not the referee’s duty to explain or quote the rules to a player.

(ii) A referee, if asked by a player, may divulge certain information pertaining to the frame in question under the guidelines of the “Past, Present and Future Rule”. A referee may divulge information relating to any past event or present situation in the frame. For example: – “whose turn is it?” – Present. “Was that a foul?” – Past. “Which Colour am I On?” – Present. However, “If I play this shot will it be a foul?” is a question regarding the Future and the Referee should advise the player that the Referee cannot answer this type of question.

(3) The referee shall either toss a coin, or the players shall lag, to determine the break. The winner of the toss or lag shall decide who will break first and the referee shall announce the decision.

(4) If an Object Ball (or balls) is potted on the break the referee will advise both players of this fact by announcing the Ball (or balls) potted. When Colours are decided for the first time, the referee will announce “Player ‘A’ On Red (or Yellow) Balls”. When that player’s turn is complete the referee will advise the incoming player of the situation by announcing “Player ‘B’ on Yellow (or Red) Balls”.

(5) (a) The Referee will call fouls as soon as they occur and the fouled player loses control of the table.

(i) The call for a Standard Foul is “Foul, Two Visits”.

(ii) The call for a Non-Standard Foul is “Foul, (and announce the relevant penalty).”

(iii) The call for a Loss of Frame Foul is “Loss of Frame”.

(b) After a player has been awarded two visits the referee will make no call until the player fails to pot a ball “On”. (Except for 30 second time warnings and for any fouls that may occur) The referee will then call “Second Visit” to advise the player that the first visit is complete and the second visit is about to begin.

(6) The referee will call any instance when the Cue Ball is touching a ball “On”.

(7) In the absence of any competition / tournament rules to the contrary, two referees will referee each frame. One referee will make the standard calls such as “Second Visit” and “Player A on Red (or Yellow) Balls” while the other referee will keep the time.

Both referees’ will be involved in the refereeing of the frame and either can call fouls.

If one referee calls a foul, the other referee cannot overrule the call. That is, the two referees have equal authority.

REFERENCE: The Playing Rules are the copyright of the World Eight-ball Pool Federation

copyright www.8ballumpire.com.au

International 8-Ball Pool Rules

International 8-Ball Pool Rules

International 8-Ball Pool Rules

1 SPIRIT OF THE GAME

The game shall be known as International 8-Ball Pool with rules that must be played in a sporting manner at all times.

2 EQUIPMENT & TABLE LAYOUT

All equipment that is generally accepted throughout the industry is permitted. No other equipment is allowed unless ratified by the Tournament Director. However, using any equipment in a non-customary manner is never allowed and constitutes a foul. International 8-Ball Pool is played on a six pocket rectangular table with six cushions. Equipment permitted:
(a) A spotted white called a cue ball
(b) Two groups of object balls consisting of seven reds and seven yellows
(c) A striped eight ball
(d) Spider, rest, gooseneck rest, cross rest
(e) Prescribed cues
The playing surface is the flat part of the table bordered by the cushions.
The surface must be marked with an eight ball spot at the intersection of two imaginary diagonal lines joining the centre and corner pockets. The surface must be marked with a ‘rack line’. The rack line must be a 280mm vertical line going down through the eight ball spot towards the top cushion (See Rule 5 for an illustration of the rack line). On the rack line must be two marker points, one for the head ball and the other for the black ball. The cloth is marked with a break line parallel to the bottom cushion 1/5th of the length of the table away from baulk cushion.

3 THE OBJECT OF THE GAME

International 8-Ball pool is played with a spotted cue ball and fifteen object balls, seven red, seven yellow and a striped eight ball. One player must pocket all balls of one group, while the other player must pocket the alternate coloured balls. The player who pockets their entire group and THEN legally pockets the eight ball wins the game. The eight ball must be potted in a separate shot.

4 THE BREAK

4a – A “Lag for Break” shall determine who breaks first with an alternating break format taking place thereafter. The winner of lag is the player whose ball is closest to baulk cushion. The winner of the lag is given the choice to break or not.

4b – Lagging Procedure:
(1) Balls shall be of equal size and weight
(2) To start the lag the referee will count the players in by counting back from 3 to 1.
(3) The players must simultaneously strike balls on the referee’s indication towards the top cushion.

4c – It is automatic loss of lag if a ball:
(1) Crosses into the opponent’s half of the table OR
(2) Fails to contact the top cushion OR
(3) Drops into a pocket OR
(4) Hits a side cushion OR
(5) Jumps from the table OR
(6) Comes to rest on the playing surface within the area of the corner pocket OR
(7) Player commits any standard foul.

4d – Players will lag again if:
(1) Both players foul OR
(2) The referee cannot decide on which is closest to the bottom cushion OR (3) One player’s ball strikes the top cushion before the other player’s ball is hit.

4e – The Break will be deemed a ‘Legal Break’ if the player breaking, obtains a minimum of three cumulative points. 1 point for each object ball potted (eight ball included, so thus does count). 1 point for each ball that has passed an imaginary line between the two centre pockets, that is not potted. A ball is deemed as having ‘passed’ the centre line if the whole ball is over the imaginary line.

4f – Failure to perform a legal break MUST result in a re-rack. The opponent has the option to break or to choose to give the break back to the original breaker.

4g – Groups are not decided on the break. The table remains open after the break. If the player in control of the table does not make a legal pot, the table is still deemed open for the incoming player.

4h – If the eight ball is potted off the break, it is always re-spotted after all balls have come to rest on the table. To respot the eight ball, the centre point of the eight ball is placed on the eight ball spot or if this is not available as near as possible to the spot in a direct line between the spot and the centre of the top cushion. If there is no space available on this line, place the eight ball as near as possible to its spot in a direct line between the spot and the bottom cushion. If the eight ball is the ‘only ball potted on a legal break’ then control of table goes to incoming player. If it’s potted with other groups and the criteria of a legal break has been fulfilled, the breaker continues.

4i – If the cue ball, on a legal break:
(1) Goes “in-off”, a loss of turn occurs and the incoming player is awarded one visit with cue ball in hand, to be played from behind the break line, in any direction.
(2) Leaves the playing surface, a standard foul will be called against the breaker, with the incoming player receiving one visit, played from anywhere on the table. (See 6l (1))

5 THE RACK
Arrange as shown with the eight ball on the eight ball spot. Top apex ball on the head marker of the rack line. (See the diagram to the right for an illustration of where the balls are racked in relation to the rack line).

6 IN PLAY

6a Deciding groups
(1) Groups are decided on the first ball legally potted (See 6e(12)). The referee will call first group in play.
(2) The table is considered an “open” table when the choice of groups (red or yellow) has not yet been determined. The table is always open immediately after the break shot. Balls potted from the break are disregarded. The player’s designated group (red or yellow) will not be determined until a player legally pockets an object ball. Once groups are determined, object balls from a player’s group are referred to as ‘on’ ball(s).
(3) Failure to make a legal pot result in the table remaining open.
(4) If one of each group is potted in one shot, the player will be ‘on’ the group struck by the cue ball first unless a foul has occurred, in which case the table remains open.
(5) Where the choice of group is not obvious. (e.g. player cues up to a group of object balls / object balls of both groups sitting close to each other / player is snookered behind the eight ball / the lay of the table is such no object ball is a clear target).
(a) The player MUST indicate to the referee and/or the opponent the intended group.
(b) Failure to call a group, after potting a ball, whilst the table is open, is loss of turn (See 6d), table remains open.
(c) Failure to strike called group is loss of turn (See 6d), table remains open.
(d) Striking called group but potting other group is loss of turn (See 6d), table remains open.
(e) Potting called group is a legal pot and group is assigned to striker.
(f) The onus is on the player in control of the table to make the call in order for the groups to be decided in a fair and sporting manner.
(6) Simultaneous contact is allowed so in the case of a 50/50 ball the player will be deemed to be ‘on’ the called group.
(7) Groups are not decided on a foul shot.

6b Continuing a frame In the course of play, if a legal shot is played and the balls(s) from the player’s own group are potted, play continues and the player is entitled to an additional shot. The player will lose their turn and return control of the table to the opponent if they: (a) Fail to pot one or more of their own group AND / OR (b) Commits a standard foul.

6c Combination shots Object balls from both groups can be potted without penalty in a single ‘combination’ shot. The potted balls may drop into the pockets in any order but ‘on’ ball must be struck legally first. Attempting to complete a combination shot that results in only potting ball not ‘on’ is LOSS OF TURN. Combination shots do not have to be called.

6d
Loss of turn As long as the player strikes an ‘on’ ball first, should an opponent’s ball be potted without also potting an ‘on’ ball, it will be loss of turn. Control of the table returns to the opponent; cue ball is played from where it lies. The only exception to this is during an open table where choice of groups has yet to be decided, see point (4) below. For example:
(1) Potting an opponent’s ball accidently.
(2) Failing to complete a legal combination shot.
(3) A tactical shot e.g. playing designated group legally to pot an opponent’s ball.
(4) Failure to call a group, after potting a ball, whilst the table is open, if the group was not obvious.

6e
Standard fouls Standard fouls are to be called by the referee as soon as they occur, the fouling player is in control, until all balls from that shot come to rest. The referee awards cue ball in hand, which can be placed anywhere on the playing surface with one visit to the opponent.

(1) Potting the Cue Ball – “In Off” (Except off the break See 4i)
(2) Playing from outside Baulk when obliged to play from Baulk. The break line is considered to be part of the baulk. The base of the cue ball must be on or behind the break line.
(3) A player who plays a shot immediately after playing a foul or immediately after the referee has called a foul on that player, has played out of turn. This also covers breaking out of turn.
(4) Striking the cue ball with any part of the cue other than the tip in general play. Positioning the cue ball with the cue is allowed as long as the tip of the cue is not used.
(5) Striking any ball other than the cue ball with any part of the cue or cue tip.
(6) Playing a shot before all balls have come to rest from the previous shot.
(7) Playing a shot before any balls that require re-spotting or replacing, have been re-spotted or replaced. (See 6m).
(8) Coaching: During a frame, a player is required to play without receiving any advice from other persons relating to the playing of the frame. If a team member or bone-fide supporter of a player offers advice, the referee will issue a “First and final warning” to that person that a repetition will result in the player being penalised via a Standard Foul. Because it may not always be possible for the Referee to hear if a statement made to a player is advice, the referee may issue the first and final warning on the grounds that any statement made to a player, other than general barracking, is deemed to be coaching. In a tournament setting, a First and Final warning may be given once only, before the commencement of the day’s play as a block warning to all players and spectators.
(9) Leaving the playing area without permission. If a player needs to leave the playing area during a frame or match, “Time Out” must firstly be granted by the referee. Timeout may be called for:
(a) Player requests a rest or bridge OR
(b) Something or someone is obstructing the player OR
(c) The referee has to make a decision OR
(d) The referee has to replace or re-spot a ball.
(10) Playing a “Push Shot” (defined as when the tip of the cue remaining in contact with the cue ball once it has commenced a forward motion).
(11) Double hitting the cue ball.
(12) Failing to perform a “Legal Shot”. DEFINITION OF A LEGAL SHOT – To play a legal shot the player must cause the cue balls initial contact to be with a ball ‘on’ and THEN must either: (a) Pot any ball or balls OR (b) Cause the cue ball or any object ball to contact a cushion.
(13) Playing a shot while not having at least one foot touching the floor.
(14) Failing to “Play Away” from a touching ball(s).
(15) A ball remaining off the table.
(16) A player’s body, clothing, jewellery or accessory, or part of a cue (with the exception of the tip in a legal shot), comes into contact with any ball. A tip falling off a cue or chalk dropped, is the player’s responsibility. Should any of these contact a ball on the table, it is deemed a foul. A player is responsible for their ‘own’ equipment brought to the table but not that which is ‘supplied’ by the competition itself. For example, If the end falls off a rest that has been ’supplied’ by the competition which contacts a ball, this is deemed not a foul.
(17) Jump shot: If the cue ball leaves the bed of the table and does not strike an object ball that it would have struck had the cue ball not left the table on an otherwise identical shot, then the cue ball is deemed to have jumped over that ball.
(18) Marking the table to assist a shot.
(19) Time foul.

6f
Loss of frame fouls
(1) Deliberately not playing a ball from his/her own group first, or an “on” ball after a foul.
(2) Unsporting behaviour / bringing the game into disrepute. Including but not exclusive to:
(a) Foul language OR
(b) Throwing a cue around / unscrewing as if to concede OR
(c) Continually arguing with the referee or opponent OR
(d) Interfering when the opponent is on the shot either verbally or physically.
(3) Committing a foul in the same shot that the eight ball is potted. (Except on the break)
(4) Potting the eight ball when a ball or balls of the player’s own group are still on the table. (Except on the Break) Including potting last group ball and eight ball in same shot. (5) A player who clearly and intentionally fails to make an attempt to play a ball(s) of his/her own group.
(6) Intentionally positioning the cue ball in hand after a foul to create a re-rack situation.

6g
Stalemate situation If any situation arises whereby a legal shot cannot be played, Rule 6e(12), the frame shall be restarted with a re-rack. The player who originally broke will restart the re-racked frame. NB: After an illegal break, if a stalemate occurs in the following rerack, the break shall also always return to the player who originally broke to commence the original frame i.e. the illegal break.

6h Frozen balls
(1) An object ball is deemed frozen whilst touching a cushion. It is a standard foul if the cue ball initially contacts a frozen ball first and the shot does not result in:
(a) A ball being potted OR
(b) The cue ball contacting a cushion OR
(c) The frozen ball contacting a cushion attached to a different rail OR
(d) Any other object ball contacting a cushion with which it was not already in contact with before the shot is played.
(2) A ball is only deemed frozen if announced by the referee or player, prior to the shot being taken.

6i Outside Interference
(1) There is no penalty if balls are moved in these circumstances:
(a) By persons other than players taking part in the frame OR
(b) As a result of players being bumped OR
(c) Events deemed not within a players control.
(2) The referee will return the balls as close as possible to their original positions whenever possible. Re-racks will only be granted in extreme circumstances. The referee’s decision is final.
(3) The referee can reset the shot clock if they consider situation warrants. The decision is at referee’s discretion.

6j Shot clock Each player is allotted 45 seconds for each shot. The tip of the cue must have made contact with the cue ball within this time or a standard foul shall be granted to the opponent. The 45 second shot clock will commence once all balls come to rest. The time keeper will verbally announce a warning at 10 seconds, then count down from 5 seconds. One extension per frame is permitted per player, whereby the referee will add 45 seconds to the remaining time at the request of the player.

6k Balls falling into a pocket without being hit If any ball hangs in a pocket and drops in 5 seconds or less after coming to complete rest by the hole, the ball is considered to be pocketed.
If any ball drops in the pocket after being at rest for more than 5 seconds, the ball is returned to the original position, and the incoming player may begin their visit. The referee’s decision is final. If any ball falls into a pocket without playing a part of any shot in progress, it shall be replaced and play continues.
If any ball falls into a pocket without being hit during a shot, but would have been hit by another ball had the fallen ball still been there, all balls are to be replaced to their original positions before the shot was taken, so the player then may replay the shot or choose a different shot if they so wish, with no penalty.

6l Balls off the table
It is a ‘standard foul’ if a ball leaves the playing surface at any point during the frame AND does not return by its own means and remains off the playing surface (other than being potted)
(1) If it is the cue ball, then it is ball in hand, to be played anywhere on the table.
(2) Object balls are re-spotted.

6m
Returning object balls to the table which leave the playing surface An object ball is re-spotted with its centre point on the eight ball spot or as near as possible to that spot in a direct line between the spot and the centre point of the top cushion.
Object balls are re-spotted in the following order:
(a) Eight ball
(b) Red
(c) Yellow Return balls as close as possible to other balls without touching.

6n Player responsibility It is the responsibility of each player to be aware of all rules. However, a referee on request may advise on the rules of the game but must not provide any subjective opinion that would affect the result of the frame. Tournament officials will make every reasonable effort to make the information readily available to all players. However, the ultimate responsibility rests with each individual player. There is no recourse if a player does not obtain correct or complete information. Players may always call for rule(s) clarification during play. However, this is not considered a “Time Out”.

7 COMPLETION OF A FRAME

A frame is over when the eight ball is potted on a legal shot and all the balls have come to rest or in a loss of frame situation. The referee waits for all the balls to stop moving and announces FRAME. If the referee has not made this announcement, then a player will be penalized by LOSS OF FRAME if a further shot is played or the player interferes with the remaining balls.

X Referee's Guidelines and Duties

X Referee’s Guidelines and Duties

X Referee's Guidelines and Duties

The Referee’s Duties and Guidelines listed below supplement those directions contained in various other sections of these rules.

(1) The Referee’s decision is final except where players have been advised that it is possible to appeal to a Head Referee or other higher authority.

(2) Information to be disclosed / not disclosed by a referee:-

 (a) (i) A player is responsible for knowing the rules of the game. It is not the referee’s duty to explain or quote the rules to a player.

(ii) A referee, if asked by a player, may divulge certain information pertaining to the frame in question under the guidelines of the “Past, Present and Future Rule”. A referee may divulge information relating to any past event or present situation in the frame. For example: – “whose turn is it?” – Present. “Was that a foul?” – Past. “Which Colour am I On?” – Present. However, “If I play this shot will it be a foul?” is a question regarding the Future and the Referee should advise the player that the Referee cannot answer this type of question.

(3) The referee shall either toss a coin, or the players shall lag, to determine the break. The winner of the toss or lag shall decide who will break first and the referee shall announce the decision.

(4) If an Object Ball (or balls) is potted on the break the referee will advise both players of this fact by announcing the Ball (or balls) potted. When Colours are decided for the first time, the referee will announce “Player ‘A’ On Red (or Yellow) Balls”. When that player’s turn is complete the referee will advise the incoming player of the situation by announcing “Player ‘B’ on Yellow (or Red) Balls”.

(5) (a) The Referee will call fouls as soon as they occur and the fouled player loses control of the table.

(i) The call for a Standard Foul is “Foul, Two Visits”.

(ii) The call for a Non-Standard Foul is “Foul, (and announce the relevant penalty).”

(iii) The call for a Loss of Frame Foul is “Loss of Frame”.

 (b) After a player has been awarded two visits the referee will make no call until the player fails to pot a ball “On”. (Except for 30 second time warnings and for any fouls that may occur) The referee will then call “Second Visit” to advise the player that the first visit is complete and the second visit is about to begin.

(6) The referee will call any instance when the Cue Ball is touching a ball “On”.

(7) In the absence of any competition / tournament rules to the contrary, two referees will referee each frame. One referee will make the standard calls such as “Second Visit” and “Player A on Red (or Yellow) Balls” while the other referee will keep the time.

 Both referees’ will be involved in the refereeing of the frame and either can call fouls.

 If one referee calls a foul, the other referee cannot overrule the call. That is, the two referees have equal authority.

W Stalemate

W Stalemate

W Stalemate

The referee shall declare a Stalemate if both the player and the opponent have three turns in succession where the Cue Ball fails to make contact with an Object Ball. In such a case, the frame will be replayed with the same player breaking.

U Interference

U Interference

U Interference

(1) If any balls are moved during a frame:- (a) By a person other than the players taking part in the frame or, (b) As a direct result of one of the players being bumped or, (c) Due to any other event deemed outside the players’ control such as:- (i) “An Act of God” such as an earthquake etc (ii) Tip falling off a cue or end falling off a spider etc, the referee will replace the balls as near as possible to the positions they were in before the incident occurred, no penalty shall be imposed on either of the players and the frame shall continue.

(2) (a) The referee will prevent any unauthorised marking of the table. If a player causes a block of billiard chalk or other foreign matter to be on any part of the table it is not a foul. However, the referee will ensure that the item is removed. (b) If a player repeatedly causes a block of billiard chalk or other foreign matter to be on any part of the table the referee may deem that the player has breeched the Spirit of the Game and award the frame to the opponent. (c) Exception to (a) above: – A cigarette or beverage container. {see (K) Standard Fouls (10)}

T Balls Falling Without Being Hit

T Balls Falling Without Being Hit

T Balls Falling Without Being Hit

(1) Any ball that falls into a pocket at any time, without being struck, shall be replaced by the Referee to its original position, no penalty. Time will be re-started and the player in control continues with the visit.

(2) Should any ball fall into the pocket after a shot is played and before balls come to rest, providing the fallen ball played no part in the shot, once all other balls have stopped moving, it shall be replaced as described above. (a)If a legal pot was made play continues with the same visit. (b)If no pot was made play continues with the next visit. (c)If a foul was made then the next player will continue with the appropriate penalty.

(3) Should any ball fall into the pocket after a shot is played, but before balls come to rest, and the fallen ball would have been struck, then the Referee will replace all balls to their original positions (a) If no infringements of the rules were committed during the shot, or if the cue ball is potted as a result of a ball falling that the cue ball would have otherwise hit, the player who played will replay the shot or may play a different shot (b)If any foul was committed (other than as defined in a) above) then the next player will continue with the appropriate penalty.

S Balls Off the Table

S Balls Off the Table

S Balls Off the Table

(1) It is a Standard Foul if a ball leaves the playing surface (other than being potted) and remains off the playing surface or doesn’t return by its own means.

(2) Definitions / Examples (a) “Playing Surface”:- The Playing Surface of the table is the flat part of the table between the cushions (b) “By its own means”:- (i) It is not a foul if a ball leaves the playing surface, runs along the top of a cushion, drops back on to the playing surface and comes to rest there or falls into a pocket. (ii) It is a Standard Foul if a ball leaves the playing surface, comes into contact with a person or object that is not a part of the table and then returns to the playing surface. (c) “Off the Table”:- It is a Standard Foul if a ball leaves the playing surface and comes to rest on other than the playing surface. (e.g. On the floor or on the top of a cushion) (d) “Spotted”:- A ball is spotted when its centre point is placed on the spot or, if this is not possible, as near as possible to the spot in a direct line between the spot and the centre point of the cushion that lies the greatest distance from the Baulk Line. If this is not possible, as near as is possible to the spot, in a direct line between the spot and the centre point of the baulk line. (e) If any of the following balls require spotting, they are spotted in the following order:- (i) Eight Ball then (ii) Red Balls in any order (or balls numbered 1 to 7 in numerical order) then (iii) Yellow Balls in any order (or balls numbered 9 to 15 in numerical order) Spotted balls should be placed as close to each other and any intervening balls as possible, without touching.

(3) If a ball leaves the playing surface and remains off the playing surface, it shall be returned to the table:- (a) If it is the Cue Ball it is to be played from Baulk. (b) If it is an Object Ball (or Balls) it is to be Spotted.

R Touching Balls

R Touching Balls

R Touching Balls

(1) General (a) If the Cue Ball is touching an Object Ball, the player is obliged to “Play Away” from that Object Ball at an angle of more than 90 degrees. (That is, play the shot without causing the Cue Ball to make any initial further contact with that Object Ball) (b) If, when playing away from a touching ball, the touching ball rocks or moves without being contacted further, but simply because the Cue Ball is no longer there, no penalty will apply.

(2) When Colours have been decided:- (a) Playing away from a touching Object Ball of the player’s own Colour:- The instant a player plays away from a touching Object Ball of the player’s own Colour, the player is deemed to have played that ball. Therefore, the player needs to then only pot a ball or cause any ball to strike a cushion to fulfil all the requirements of a Legal Shot. (b) Playing away from a touching Object Ball of the opponent’s Colour:- The player must play away from the touching ball and then meet all the requirements of a Legal Shot. (c) (i) Playing away from the touching Eight Ball when “On” the Eight Ball:- The player must play away from the touching Eight Ball and then need only cause any ball to strike a cushion to fulfil the requirements of a Legal Shot. (ii) Playing away from the touching Eight Ball when not “On” the Eight Ball.:- The player must play away from the touching Eight Ball and then meet all the requirements of a Legal Shot. (d) Playing away from two or more touching Object Balls:- (i) If any of the touching Object Balls are of the player’s Colour, the player will be deemed to have played away if the player plays away from any one of the touching balls of the player’s Colour. That is, the player may play into any of the other touching balls. The player needs then to only pot a ball or cause any ball to strike a cushion to fulfil the requirements of a Legal Shot. (ii) If none of the touching Object Balls are of the player’s coloured group, the player must play away from all the touching balls and then meet all the requirements of a Legal Shot.

(3) When Colours have yet to be decided:- (a) Playing away from a touching Coloured Ball:- The instant a player plays away from a touching Coloured Ball the player is deemed to have played that ball. Therefore, the player needs to then only pot a ball or cause any ball to strike a cushion to fulfil all the requirements of a Legal Shot. (b) Playing away from a touching Eight Ball:- The player must play away from the touching Eight Ball and then meet all the requirements of a Legal Shot. (c) Playing away from two or more touching Object Balls:- If the player plays away from any of the touching Coloured Balls the player is deemed to have played that ball. That is, the player may play into any of the other touching Object Balls. The player needs to then only pot a ball or cause any ball to strike a cushion to meet all the requirements of a Legal Shot.

Q Foul Jaw Snooker

Q Foul Jaw Snooker

Q Foul Jaw Snooker

If an opponent fouls and the Cue Ball comes to rest on or near a Jaw (curved part of a cushion), and that Jaw is preventing the player from playing the finest cut possible on both sides of any of that player’s own Colour by way of a “straight – line” shot, the player is deemed to be Foul Snookered and all the rules pertaining to Foul Snookers will apply.