8 Ball Umpire

World EightBall Pool Rules

F The Break

F The Break
F The Break

(1) The Object Balls are racked as shown with the Eight-Ball on the Spot.

(2) In the absence of any competition / tournament rules to the contrary, a coin will be tossed or players will ‘lag’ to determine which player will break. Rules for the ‘lag’ Each player should use balls of equal size and weight. These should be the only two balls on the table. With the balls in baulk, one player to the left the other to the right of the table, the balls are struck simultaneously to the foot cushion and back to the baulk end of the table. The player whose ball is the closest to the innermost edge of the baulk cushion wins the lag. The lagged ball must contact the foot cushion at least once. Other cushion contacts are immaterial, except as prohibited below. It is an automatic loss of the lag if: (1) The ball crosses into the opponent’s half of the table, (2) The ball fails to contact the foot cushion,

(3) The ball drops into a pocket, (4) The ball jumps off the table, (5) The ball touches the long cushion, (6) The ball rests within the corner pocket and past the nose of the head cushion, or (7) The ball contacts the foot cushion more than once. If both players violate automatic-loss lag rules, or if the referee is unable to determine which ball is closer, the lag is a tie and is replayed. If one player strikes the ball, the other player has to strike his ball before the opponent’s ball reaches the foot cushion in order to have a simultaneous lag. If this is not the case and the referee feels that the player who played second wanted to get an advantage out of that, then the lag has to be replayed. The winner of the toss or lag shall decide who will break first. If a series of frames is to be played (A Match),the break of each subsequent frame will alternate. (3) The first shot of a frame is called the “Break”. To “Break”, the Cue Ball is played at the triangle of Object Balls from Baulk. The frame is deemed to have commenced the instant that the Cue Ball is played.

(4) (a)The Break will be deemed a “Fair Break” if:- Yellow J (i)At least one Colour is potted. OR (ii) Four Object Balls (at least) are driven to a cushion. (b)If the Break is not a Fair Break it is a Non-Standard Foul and:- (i)The opponent is awarded two visits. (ii)The balls are re-racked. (iii) The opponent re-starts the game and is under the same obligation to achieve a Fair Break. (c)(i) If the Cue Ball is potted on a Fair Break it is a Non-Standard Foul that is penalised by the turn passing to the opponent. (ii) If the break is not a Fair Break and the Cue Ball is potted, the penalty for failure to perform a Fair Break applies. (See (b) above).

(5) If the Eight-Ball is potted on any break, the balls are re-racked and the same player will break again. When the Eight-Ball is potted on the break, all other aspects of the shot are ignored. (Except if a breach of the “Spirit of the Game occurs)

(6) Where the wrong player performs the break, if:- (i) the break is fair, the opponent will continue with 2 visits and an open table. (ii) the break is not a Fair Break, see 4(b) above.

(7) Lag for break If competition or tournament rules require a lag for break then the following procedure should be used: Each player should use balls of equal size and weight. These should be the only two balls on the table. With the balls in baulk, one player to the left and one to the right of the table, the balls are struck simultaneously to the foot cushion and back to the baulk end of the table. The player whose ball is the closest to the innermost edge of the baulk cushion wins the lag. The lagged ball must contact the foot cushion at least once. Other cushion contacts are immaterial, except as prohibited below.

It is an automatic loss of the lag if: (a) the ball crosses into the opponent’s half of the table, (b) the ball fails to contact the foot cushion, (c) the ball drops into a pocket, (d) the ball jumps the table, (e) the ball touches the long cushion, (f) the ball rests within the corner pocket and past the nose of the head cushion, or (g) the ball contacts the foot cushion more than once. If both players violate automatic-loss lag rules, or if the referee is unable to determine which ball is closer, the lag is a tie and is replayed. If one player strikes the ball, the other player has to strike his ball before the opponent’s ball reaches the foot cushion in order to have a simultaneous lag. If this is not the case and the referee feels that the player who played second wanted to get an advantage out of that, then the lag has to be replayed.

G Legal Shot

G Legal Shot
G Legal Shot

(1) On all shots, the player must:- (a) Cause the Cue Ball’s initial contact with a ball to be with a ball “On”, AND THEN (b) Pot a ball “On” OR Cause the Cue Ball or any Object Ball to contact a cushion.

(2) Failure to play a Legal Shot is a Standard Foul.

(3) Exceptions: (a) On the Break, the conditions of a Legal Shot do not apply. {See (F) The Break} (b) When playing out of a Total Snooker a player is only obliged to meet the conditions of (1)(a) above. i) Definition: A player is in a Total Snooker when it is impossible to play any part of any of the player’s own Colour by way of a “straight line” shot. Leaving an opponent in a Total Snooker is not a foul. ii) If a player believes that a Total Snooker exists, the player may ask the referee for a ruling. iii) If the referee rules that a Total Snooker exists, the player’s obligations under the “Legal Shot” rule are relaxed as follows: – The player need only cause the Cue Ball’s initial contact to be with a ball “On”. The requirement to pot a ball and / or cause a ball to strike a cushion is waived.

(4) Interpretations: (a) If the Cue Ball’s initial contact is with an Object Ball that is touching a cushion, simply forcing that Object Ball into the same cushion does not constitute a Legal Shot. (b) If the Cue Ball and an Object Ball are touching the same cushion, simply forcing the Cue Ball and / or that Object Ball into the same cushion does not constitute a Legal Shot.

H Deciding Colours

H Deciding Colours
H Deciding Colours

(1) General (a) When Colours have not been decided the table is deemed to be “Open”. When the table is open a player may play at either group of Colours. (b) Colours can never be decided on a foul shot. (c) Once Colours are decided, the player remains “On” that coloured group for the duration of the frame. The opponent remains “On” the opposite coloured group. (d) Playing a shot after neglecting to nominate a choice of Colours is a Standard Foul. Any balls potted on such a shot are left in the pocket and ignored for the purpose of deciding Colours.

(2) On the Break (a)If no Colours are potted on the break the table is “Open”. (b) If one or more Colours are potted on the break the player then has a right and obligation to verbally advise the referee of a choice of Colour before proceeding. Failure to do so is a Standard Foul. If a player is fouled under this rule the opponent faces an “Open” table. (c) (i) If the player nominates a Colour that was potted on the break, the player is on that colour no matter what happens next. (ii) If the player nominates a Colour that was not potted on the break, to be on that Colour, the player must pot a ball of that Colour on the next shot.

(3) After the Break (a) If a player pots one or more balls of the same Colour, the player is then “On” that Colour. (b) If a player pots one or more balls of different Colours, the player then has a right and obligation to verbally advise the referee of a choice of Colour before proceeding. Once a colour is nominated in these circumstances, the player is on that colour no matter what happens next. Failure to nominate is a Standard Foul. If a player is fouled under this rule, the opponent faces an “Open” table.

X Referee’s Guidelines and Duties

X Referees Guidelines and Duties

The Referee’s Duties and Guidelines listed below supplement those directions contained in various other sections of these rules.

(1) The Referee’s decision is final except where players have been advised that it is possible to appeal to a Head Referee or other higher authority.

(2) Information to be disclosed / not disclosed by a referee:-

 (a) (i) A player is responsible for knowing the rules of the game. It is not the referee’s duty to explain or quote the rules to a player.

(ii) A referee, if asked by a player, may divulge certain information pertaining to the frame in question under the guidelines of the “Past, Present and Future Rule”. A referee may divulge information relating to any past event or present situation in the frame. For example: – “whose turn is it?” – Present. “Was that a foul?” – Past. “Which Colour am I On?” – Present. However, “If I play this shot will it be a foul?” is a question regarding the Future and the Referee should advise the player that the Referee cannot answer this type of question.

(3) The referee shall either toss a coin, or the players shall lag, to determine the break. The winner of the toss or lag shall decide who will break first and the referee shall announce the decision.

(4) If an Object Ball (or balls) is potted on the break the referee will advise both players of this fact by announcing the Ball (or balls) potted. When Colours are decided for the first time, the referee will announce “Player ‘A’ On Red (or Yellow) Balls”. When that player’s turn is complete the referee will advise the incoming player of the situation by announcing “Player ‘B’ on Yellow (or Red) Balls”.

(5) (a) The Referee will call fouls as soon as they occur and the fouled player loses control of the table.

(i) The call for a Standard Foul is “Foul, Two Visits”.

(ii) The call for a Non-Standard Foul is “Foul, (and announce the relevant penalty).”

(iii) The call for a Loss of Frame Foul is “Loss of Frame”.

 (b) After a player has been awarded two visits the referee will make no call until the player fails to pot a ball “On”. (Except for 30 second time warnings and for any fouls that may occur) The referee will then call “Second Visit” to advise the player that the first visit is complete and the second visit is about to begin.

(6) The referee will call any instance when the Cue Ball is touching a ball “On”.

(7) In the absence of any competition / tournament rules to the contrary, two referees will referee each frame. One referee will make the standard calls such as “Second Visit” and “Player A on Red (or Yellow) Balls” while the other referee will keep the time.

 Both referees’ will be involved in the refereeing of the frame and either can call fouls.

 If one referee calls a foul, the other referee cannot overrule the call. That is, the two referees have equal authority.

I Time Allowed

I Time Allowed
I Time Allowed

(1) A player has a maximum of sixty seconds to play each shot.

(2) The Referee will start timing when all balls have come to rest from the previous shot.

(3) If the first thirty seconds elapses before a shot is played, the referee will call “Thirty Seconds” as a warning to the player. This call must be made the instant the thirty seconds has expired. A Referee should not postpone the call because it appears that the player is about to play a shot.

(4) If a shot is not played within sixty seconds it is a Non-Standard Foul. The incoming player is awarded two visits from: -(a)Where the Cue Ball lies, or, if the player wishes (b) From Baulk.

(5) The referee may decide to grant “Time Out”, being a period when timing ceases:- (a) At the request of a player. (For example, something is obstructing the player or the player needs to leave the playing area.) and / or (b) Because the referee deems that it is warranted. (For example, the referee may call time out when making a close foul snooker decision or when searching for a piece of equipment requested by the player.)

(6) When the referee has racked the balls the referee will call “Time Running”. The oncoming player then must play the break shot within 60 seconds. J Fouls There are three types of foul. Standard Fouls, Non-Standard Fouls, and Loss of Frame Fouls. A player can only be penalised for one foul at a time. If two or more fouls are committed during a shot, the foul that carries the most severe penalty will apply

K Standard Fouls

K Standard Fouls

Standard fouls are to be called by the referee as soon as they occur and the fouled player is in control, until all balls from that shot come to rest. The referee then awards two visits to the opponent.

(1) Potting the Cue Ball – “In Off” { except on a Fair Break – see (F) The Break (4)(c)(1) } The incoming player plays from Baulk { see (E) Playing from Baulk (d)(1) }

(2) Playing from outside Baulk when obliged to play from Baulk. { see (E) Playing from Baulk (2)(a) }

(3) Potting an opponent’s ball. (except, when it is the properly nominated ball following a Foul Snooker or Foul Jaw Snooker)

(4) Playing out of turn. {A player who plays a shot immediately after playing a foul or immediately after the referee has called a foul on that player, has played out of turn.

(5) Accidentally striking the Cue Ball with any part of the cue other than the tip.

(6) Accidentally striking an Object Ball with any part of the cue or cue tip.

(7) Playing a shot before all balls have come to rest from the previous shot.

(8) Playing a shot before any balls that require spotting, have been spotted.

(9) (a) Touching the table while having a cigarette (lit or unlit) in hand or mouth. (b) Causing a cigarette (lit or unlit) to touch the table or enter the space directly above the table. (c) Touching the table while having a beverage container in hand. (d) Causing a beverage container or beverage to touch the table or enter the space directly above the table.

(10) Touching the table when not in control of the frame. {See (C) Definitions {Player in Control}

Exception: When a players’ turn is finished, that player has a maximum of ten (10) seconds to move away from the table. {See 11 below}

(11) Not moving away from the table within ten (10) seconds of the time that all the balls stopped moving from the final shot of a turn at the table.

(12) Coaching: – During a frame, a player is required to play without receiving any advice from other persons relating to the playing of the frame. Should a team member or bone-fide supporter of a player offer advice, the referee will issue a “First and Final Warning” to that person that a repetition will result in the player being penalised via a Standard Foul. Because it may not always be possible for the Referee to hear if a statement made to a player is advice, the referee may issue the First and Final Warning on the grounds that any statement made to a player, other than general barracking, is deemed to be coaching. In a tournament setting, a First and Final warning may be given once only, before the commencement of the day’s play as a block warning to all players and spectators.

(13) Leaving the playing area without permission. If a player needs to leave the playing area during a frame or match, “Time Out” must firstly be granted by the referee. { see (I) Time Allowed (5) }

(14) Playing a shot after neglecting to nominate a choice of Colour when the obligation and right to do so existed. { see (H) Deciding Colours (1)(d) }

(15) Playing a Push Shot or Double Hit of a type defined in (N) Push Shots and Double Hits.

(16) Failing to perform a “Legal Shot”. { see(G) Legal Shot }

(17) After being awarded a Foul Snooker or Foul Jaw Snooker: – Playing an opponent’s ball or the Eight Ball without firstly nominating that ball.

(18) Playing a shot while not having at least one foot touching the floor. (19) Failing to “Play Away” from a touching ball. { see (R) Touching Balls (1)(a) }

(20) A ball remaining off the table. {see (S) Balls Off the Table}

(21) Players body or clothing touching any ball.

(22) Jump shot.(If the Cue ball leaves the bed of the table and misses an Object ball that would have been struck had the Cue Ball not left the table on an otherwise identical shot, the Cue Ball is deemed to have jumped over that object ball).A break shot that results in the pack being jumped will be deemed to be not a Fair Break (see 4b)

L Non-Standard Fouls

L Non Standard Fouls

Non-Standard fouls are to be called by the referee as soon as they occur and the fouled player is in control, until all balls from that shot come to rest. The referee will then impose the relevant penalty. Non-Standard Fouls are so called because the penalty and / or options of the incoming player may vary.

(1) Failure to perform a Fair Break. { see (F) The Break (4)(a)&(b) }

(2) Failure to play a shot within 60 seconds of the time that the balls came to rest from the previous shot. { see (I) Time Allowed (4) }

(3) Potting the Cue Ball on a Fair Break. { see (F) The Break (4)(c)(1) }